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Central square - 120 years ago       Ganja has played an important role in development of a scientific idea. One of the founders of eaststudy in Russia was M.D.Topchubashev (1784-1869), who was born in this city and has received initial education in madrasa. He arrived to St. Petersburg in staff of the Iranian embassy in 1817. Later as the professor of the Petersburg University, he was one of the founders of branch of Numismatics of Russian Archeological Society and up to the end of life supervised it's east department. Among the poets who lived and created in Ganja, it is possible to specify Mirza Mehti Nadji, Molla Abdulla, Gadji Abbas, Khaki and others. The social motives are especially strong in poetry of Nadji. One of the most advanced representatives of enlightenment in Azerbaijan was Mirza Shafi Vaseh (1794-1852).
      There was no national theatre in Ganja. It was replaced by national games, shabekhi, various shows and etc. Besides national shows, there were Russian theatrical representations going on in the city, which were viewed by the Russian speaking intelligence.
Basar       Several libraries functioned in Ganja. Their fund basically consisted of the textbooks.
      After 70-ties ХIX century Ganja became the capital of the same province. In spite of the fact that the rule about city was entered in 1870, it was carried out only after 27 years in Ganja.
      During capitalism the wide development was received with such branches of craft, where the handicraftsmen produced production not by the orders, but directly for the market. In this period the most advanced branches were tanning business, weavement, carpet industry and etc. The craft still has not completely lost the importance and was one of the basic occupations of the population.
     The aristocracy of Ganja began to invest in developing processing branches, opened new enterprises. Especially such branches, as winemaking, manufacturing of cognac, spirit, malt root, cleaned cotton intensively developed.
Grossery shop      In Ganja the industrial enterprises were owned basically by trade societies "the Brothers Forer", " the Brothers Gummel ", "Elizavetpol", "Konkordia", "Pobeda", " the Brothers P. & E Amirkhanovy", "E.Franke & I.Polonskiy", "Ashkhatank" and joint-stock company " Janub chakhychylary".
      Fruit-extract factories in development of a food-processing industry in Ganja played a considerable role. In 1906 after the establishment of the joint-stock society " the Caucasian society of malt root manufacturing and processing ", the factory became one of the basic enterprises. The society was founded on the basis of an English-American capital.
Trading lines       The development of the cleared cotton manufacture in Ganja was directly connected to annual increase cotton industry in province. In 1900 2 cotton-cleaning factories functioned in here, where they used the advanced engineering. Up to 20 workers worked at each factory. In 1911 5 out of 24 cotton cleaning factories of the province were in Ganja. Up to 100 poods of the cleared cotton were produced annually on each of these factories.
      Hundred thousand poods of the cleared cotton made on large cotton cleaning factories of Ganja were sent in Moscow, Lodz and other cities. These factories belonged to trade houses "Umid", "Ulduz", "Khlopok", "the Brothers Kevorkovy ", " the Brothers Rafievy " and commercial-industrial society "Arzumanov and Co ". The founders of trade houses were basically the representatives of the national capital. In 1919 another joint-stock company "Elizavetpol agricultural and industrial trade " was created which was engaged in manufacturing of the cleared cotton in Ganja.
     Before revolution there was one tobacco factory in Ganja, which was based in 50-ties of the last century. The brick factories had also industrial importance. The production satisfied not only local population's demand, but also was sent to the village population of the province.
Konka-first public transport.       In 1883 the railway line Baku - Tiflis started to operate, that promoted development of economy of the city. This railway has turned to one of stations of Transcaucasia, through which great quantity of the agricultural and industrial goods were sent. Besides it connected Ganja with such cities, as Baku, Shusha, Tiflis, Iravan, and others. The goods in waggons and vans were sent in the listed cities through this line.
      With development of capitalism a wide credit-bank system was created in the city. Still in 1896 a branch of the Azov-Don trade bank, in 1905 first, and in 1907 the second mixed credit-trade societies, in 1912 a department of Tiflis trade bank, in 1913 agency of the Volgodonsk trade bank and after long correspondence in 1916 branch of State Elizavetpol bank were open.
      The development of capitalism has rendered positive influence on cultural life of Ganja. It was shown in development of education. Besides the schools, there were also religious Muslim schools- madrasa at mosques- functioning in the considered period in Ganja. In 1883 a female grammar school began to function at "A Charitable society St. Nina" in Ganja. In 1924 a pedagogical seminary was open in the city. In the first year 18 students were accepted in the seminary, the majority of them were from rich families.

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