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... History of Ganja
and cattle breeding have received wide development simultaneously with
craft in Ganja. An unknown author in his work "Adjaib ad-dunya" wrote,
that this richly occupied large metropolitan city of Arran was surrounded
with powerfully strengthened fortress walls. Whole Ganja was in greens.
There were a large variety of fruits in here. The atlas, fabrics, cotton,
silk and other goods were taken out to other cities. The population was
courageous and shoot bows well enough.
In the specified period Ganja played the
important role in cultural development of Azerbaijan. Many scientists
and poets, whose products have won the worldwide recognition, were born
and lived in this city.
is necessary to note creativity of
Mahsati Ganjavi . She was very much-gifted poetess of the time, having
respect and authority of the people.
The ingenious Azerbaijan poet Nizami
Ganjavi, who has the worldwide recognition, lived and created in Ganja
in this period. His "Khamsa" is one of rare pearls of a treasury of the
world literature. J.E. Bertels wrote:" Nizami has immortally won the recognition
of mankind by divine magic of his spirit ".
In the beginning of ĠIII century Azerbaijan
was exposed to invasions of the Mongols. They were rendered with strong
resistance everywhere. During the first invasion in Azerbaijan (1220)
they could not grasp Ganja, which was well strengthened and resisted to
the enemy. In 1225 Azerbaijan has undergone to invasion of Dzhalaladdin,
who has grasped Azerbaijan cities one after another, including Ganja.
And it fixed the end to the state of Atabeks.
Dzhalaladdin's governors behaved outrageously,
demanded large taxes. In 1231 all this became an occasion of revolt of
the Ganja population against foreign invaders. The rebels, having destroyed
the palace of the governor of city, killed the servants and have compelled
the rich men to pay taxes for deprived within several months. This revolt
was suppressed. The head of the rebels a handicraftsman Bender and 30
active participants were executed. In 1231 the Mongols, having surrounded
the city, met strong resistance of the local population. Despite of it,
the invaders occupied, plundered the city and have subjected the population
to severe punishment. The city was not restored for a long time. The sanction
for its restoration was received only in 1235.
Since the middle of ĠIII century Azerbaijan
have been entered into structure of the state of Khulaguids, which was
ruled by Khulagu khan (1256-1265).
In the 80-ties Azerbaijan was subjected
to an attack of Amir Teymur. The country has turned to arena of struggle
between Teymur and Tokhtamish. During Teymur's invasions to Georgia Ganja
played a role of military station. Teymur's campaign on Azerbaijan has
brought the large disasters.
In the beginning of XVI century a new
state of Sefevids has appeared. Ganja was one of beklarbekliks (province),
in structure of the state founded by Shakh Ismail Khatai. With the assignment
of the sultan Shakhverdi as the first beklarbek (ruler) of Ganja, a
domination of the representatives of a new dynasty of Ziad ogly from
the tribe of Kadjars began in Ganja and Karabakh. It's this period when
Imamzade was built.
Ganja, which again occupied one of conducting places in trade of Transcaucasia,
supported close contacts to Russia, countries of Near East and Europe.
According to one of the historical sources, there were more than 50 thousand
facilities (225 000 population) in Ganja.
Temporary reduction of military actions
and expansion of trade communications have influenced revival and development
of economic life of Ganja and other cities. The Turkish traveller Evliya
Chelebi marked, that in this period there were 6000 houses in Ganja and
all of them had gardens. Especially he emphasised the development of silk
The Osmans were disturbed very much with
the gain of Caspian areas by Russia. In 1723 they have taken Ganja in
siege, however failed to occupy the city.
disturbed the government of Iran. Nadir shah, who stood in the chapter
of the Iranian army, has put before himself the purpose exile Russians
and Turks from Azerbaijan and to transform it in an occupied zone. According
to the conditions of a contract signed between Russia and Iran near Ganja
in March 1735, the Russian government has removed its armies from Caspian
Nadir shah's policy in Azerbaijan has subjected
the population to complete ruin, became the reason of its poverty. The
murder of the shah in 1747 has strengthened aspiration to even more independence,
and was finished by occurrence of separate feudal governments - khanlygs.
One of the khanlygs, arisen
in the middle of Ġ\/III century was Ganja khanlygy. A representative of
the dynasty of Ziadogly, which have ruled in Ganja for a long period of
time, Shakhverdi khan (1740-1756) became the khan of Ganja. Ganja became
the centre of the khanlyg.
In the 80-ties years of Ġ\/III century
during the government of Dzhavad khan (1785-1804), Ganja khanlygy considerably
has become stronger. It carried out independent external policy. The khanlyg
had it's own monetary courtyard in Ganja.
In this period imperial Russia, protecting
interests of aristocracy, nobility, landowners and merchants, in its turn,
tried to grasp new grounds, to expand the markets of selling. In this
respect imperial Russia gave the large importance to Azerbaijan because
of its strategic and economic situation.
Taking into account a good site of the Ganja khanlygy, the territory could
be used as stronghold of army for association other khanlygs of Azerbaijan.
The command of Russian army considered Ganja " as a key to northern provinces
of Iran ". General wrote, that Ganja fortress because of a favorable geographical
situation occupied the important place in Azerbaijan and consequently
a paramount task of Russia was to capture this fortress.
Tsitsianov several times addressed to Dzhavad
khan to surrender voluntary and each time received refusal. In November
20, 1803 he directed through Tiflis with his army towards Ganja, in December
he come nearer to the fortress. Having understood, that it would be difficult
to possess it, after certain preparations, on January 3, 1804 at 5 o'clock
in the morning he gave the order to attack the fortress. After fierce
fights they have grasped the city. Dzhavad khan was killed. Ganja was
renamed in Elizavetpol in honour of Alexander's wife Elizaveta.
In 1805 the imperial government officially
has entered commandant method of ruling. From now on all military, property
and financial authority was concentrated in hands of a commandant. In
1806 a district court was created in Ganja.
In 1824 a police department was created,
with the purpose of strengthening of the control above the population
of city, in Ganja. This department and its methods of government dissatisfied
the population. The commandant system was liquidated in 1840. Ganja was
entered in the structure of Georgian-Imereti province as a district and
there was founded a post of the head of district. Elizavetpol province
was founded in 1868. Ganja became the capital of Elizavetpol province.
of Ganja on a crossroads of caravan ways to Baku - Tiflis created conditions
for communications with shopping centres of Transcaucasia and large centres
In first half of the ĠIĠ century a revival
in cultural life of Ganja was observed. During centuries in spiritual
schools and madrasa pupils were acquainted with classical east literature.
However the spiritual schools, madrasa had no clear educational programs.
Actually at this period Mirza
Shafi Vazeh - famous poetry and teacher, author of first school-book
study in Ganja. In madrasa, near the
Juma mosque , 100 pupils were trained. In 1833 district schools were
open in Ganja. In 1833 38 pupils were trained here, at the end of 50-ties
the number rose up to 100. In the middle of ĠIĠ century special schools
began to work in Ganja and in 1860 198 men were trained there. Only 18
schoolgirls received education at sole female school. In the middle of
60-ties 981 men were educated in Ganja schools.