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... History of Ganja
of 1918 ...
It brought corrective amendments to the
development of Ganja and in an instant moment deprived the richmen from
their privileges, presenting them to the poor. Many Ganjanians (even
not very rich) moved to Iran and Turkey, for the period up to 70 years
having deprived themselves of an opportunity to contact to the relatives
and native city. Only at the end of 1990 they got the opportunity to
During the first years of the Soviet
authority the question of water supply had risen with the special acuteness.
Kahrizes were constructed by the initiative of city. Old kahrizes and
pipes were repaired before the construction of a waterpipe. The need
of Ganja in water supply was satisfied with the construction of a waterpipe,
which was built in 1936. The construction of a new waterpipe in Ganja
was begun in 1939-1940 and was completed during heavy years of the World
There were open 14 initial and 4 high
schools in Ganja in 1920 by the decree of Narkompros of Azerbaijan.
According to the information available on January 1 1923 year, 2.794
schoolboys were trained in elementary schools of Ganja. During 1928-29
years the Ganja system of initial education worked with 95 % of children.
By the year 1936 the transition to general initial system of education
was completed not only in Ganja, but also in all Azerbaijan.According
to the information of 1939 there were 16 high schools in Ganja.
In 1931 the Transcaucasian institute
of hydromelioration was transferred in Ganja, 2 agricultural schools
from Baku, and in 1933 they were united, having created an agricultural
institute with 6 faculties. Besides during these years a biennial pedagogical
institute, Ganja musical technical school, Ganja medical technical school
named after Krupskaya functioned in the city, professional-technical
school. The number of the cultural centres in Ganja grew from year to
year.9 libraries, 13 clubs, 7 reading halls were registered In 1940.
Significant role in the rise of national education belongs also to the
printing house, which was build in the city in 1920.Alongside with the
newspapers " Red Ganja ", " New Ganja ", " Gold Ganja "., "Zarba", "Ganja
bolshevik ", a number of collections were printed here.
There was a wave of reprisals, arrests, deportations
in the period from 19ă6 till 1950-s in Ganja, as well as in whole country.
Many of reprised, having lived in conditions, intolerable for the inhabitant
of the south, could not return home, others have returned after tens years
with staggered health.
During WWII 25.643 Ganjanians went to front.
A ganjanian's -junior-lieutenant
Israfil Mamedov's, unusual feat near Novgorod in fights for village
Pustinovka has brought him the world glory and he was awarded with a rank
of the Hero of the Soviet Union. He was the first Azery - Hero of the Soviet
A textile combine was built in Ganja, where
the various advanced machine tools were established. 20480 sewing machines
with 83 thousand spindles were placed at the combine.The question of electric
power supply of the city was solved by the building of a Mingechaur hydroelectric
power station in 50 km from Ganja.In 1954 in Ganja the high-voltage substation
has entered in build. In 1950-ties the appreciable work on development of
a heavy industry was carried out. An aluminium factory of huge capacity
(largest in Transcaucasia) was constructed in this period.
The food-processing industry of Ganja also
developed. In this period a meatprocessing factory, a mill, a milkproducts
factory, bakery and a confectionery factory started operating in Ganja.
In 1970-ies the second part of carpet-cloth factory was handed over in operation.
Today, Ganja is a large industrial centre
of the republic after Baku and Sumgait, with high developed heavy industry,
light industry and food industry.400 items of the consumer goods were let
out only at 22 industrial enterprises of Ganja.
Ganja considerably changed during post-war
and reconstruction periods. It's territory has extended with the construction
of new houses, public buildings, the city became more beautiful due to attractive
streets and avenues.
Now the territory of Ganja is more than 100
km▓, and it's population is more than 350 thousand people. The building
of microdistrict "Gulistan" and district " YeniGanja " on the area "Guru
Gobu" promoted to greater expansion of territory and creation of conditions
for the further development of city.
Expansion of the territory of city, increase
of a population have accordingly increased the need for drinking water.The
construction of Akhsu-Ganja waterpipe was completed in 1957.The length of
the waterpipe was 28 km. To the end of 1950-ties length of the main water
line has reached 122 km, and length of inflows departing from a main line,
has reached 400 kms. Now it can be said, that need for drinking water is
33760 schoolboys in 35 high schools, 5117 schoolboys
in 9 professional schools, 1909 schoolboys in 6 eight-year schools were
trained at the end of 1990-ties in Ganja. In 1967 9500 children were brought
up in pre-school organisations of the city. A base medical school named
after N.K.Krupskaya, technical schools of light industry, polytechnic,
agricultural, building, Ganja State pedagogical institute named after
Zardabi, Azerbaijan technological institute, the Azerbaijan agricultural
institute named after Agamalyogly functioned in the city.To this moment
32304 men has finished the institute, about 300 doctors and candidates
of sciences work in the institute.
The academicians of the Academy of Sciences
of Azerbaijan Republic G.A. Aliyev, I.K. Abdullayev, V.Kh. Tutagot, M.Kh.
Abutalibov, M.└. Musayev, M.D. Guseynov, academician of VSKhNIL named
after V.I. Lenin F.A. Melikov, member-correspondent └.└. └beyli are all
the graduates of this institute. Twice heroes of the Soviet Union Basti
Bagirova, Shamama Gasanova were also the students of this institute.
For all of it's history Ganja has been one of the vigorous springs of the Azerbaijan music.The first sounds of the
world-wide famous song "Dzhudzhalarim" of the honoured art-man of Azerbaijan
Republic Ganbar Guseynly were heard from this city. The outstanding Soviet
composer, national actor of the USSR, winner of the State premiums of USSR
and Azerbaijan Republic F.Amirov,
composer T. Gadjiyev, teachers of the Azerbaijan State conservatory named
after U.Gadjibekov - A.Alizade, B. Guseynly, N.Nabiyev, M.Dilbazi, U. Khalilov,
M.Akhmedov and others made their first steps in Ganja and their first good
luck were won in this city. National musical tool ensemble "Goy-Gol", "Kura",
"Goyarchin", "Sevindzh", women vocal tool ensemble "Ganja", dancing group
" Ulduz" were created in 1980-ties in Ganja.
P.S. Ganja is alive by memoirs of the great
persons - people, whose names make to pronounce the words Ganja and Ganjanian
with pride and feeling of dignity, people, whose life put these words
on one level with words Honour, Love, Fidelity. We still remember the
words of two people - the late academician Ziya Buniyatov (from AzTV program
about the academician) - " In those times Ganjanians were spoken about:
"they are born with a sword in hands ", and a russian general, who headed
the input of armies in the city in 1988 (from an article about Ganja in
the newspaper "Zerkalo ") - " On the bridge, some young people with a
fire mix in hands rushed on tanks, despite of shots. I did not see such
things even in Afganistan". We are sure, that the sword, the academician
spoke about is a sword of justice and will be in hands of our contemporaries.